Harvest status and fishery management perspectives for the striped marlin (Kajikia audax) in the Mexican Pacific Ocean

Main Article Content

J Gabriel Díaz-Uribe
Alexander Klett-Traulsen
Enrique Morales-Bojórquez
Hugo Aguirre-Villaseñor
Michel Dreyfus-León
Heriberto Santana-Hernández
Marcela S Zúñiga-Flores


Stock assessment of the striped marlin from the Mexican Pacific coast was done with historical (1963–2014) catch and effort data provided by commercial and recreational fleets, including bycatch data. Eight fishery-independent indices of relative abundance were used to fit a biomass dynamic model by maximum likelihood. For the most recent period (2015–2019), stock status was evaluated through simulations with the fitted model and available catch-per-unit-effort data of the recreational fleets as reference framework. Results indicated that up until 2014, striped marlin abundance showed 3 different trends. The first one was a decreasing trend from 1964 to 1977, where the catch and effort of commercial fleets exceeded the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and the level of effort to reach MSY, respectively. The second one occurred from 1977 to 1990, and it was a stable trend with low abundance, less than the abundance when MSY is reached; this change was related to the reduction of commercial effort, although catches greater than the MSY were observed. The third one occurred from 1990 to 2014, and it showed increasing abundance due to the cessation of commercial fleets. This increase, however, has become slower because of the development of the recreational fishery and the increased bycatch. After 2014, the indicator estimated with the data from the recreational fleets suggested a shift in abundance; according to simulations, the fishing mortality was insufficient to explain this change. It is hypothesized that the natural mortality of striped marlin has been high since the mid-2010s. Conditions that could influence this situation and their implications on fishery management are discussed.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Díaz-Uribe, J. G., Klett-Traulsen, A., Morales-Bojórquez, E., Aguirre-Villaseñor, H., Dreyfus-León, M., Santana-Hernández, H., & Zúñiga-Flores, M. S. (2023). Harvest status and fishery management perspectives for the striped marlin (Kajikia audax) in the Mexican Pacific Ocean. Ciencias Marinas, 49. https://doi.org/10.7773/cm.y2023.3362
Research Article



Abitia-Cárdenas LA, Galván-Magaña F, Cruz-Escalona V, Peterson MS, Rodríguez-Romero J. 2011. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico. Lat Am J Aquat Res. 39(3):449-460. https://doi.org/10.3856/vol39-issue3-fulltext-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3856/vol39-issue3-fulltext-6

Abitia-Cárdenas LA, Galván-Magaña F, Rodríguez-Romero J. 1997. Food habits and energy values of prey of striped marlin, Tetrapturus audax, off the coast of Mexico. Fish Bull. 95:360-368.

Abitia-Cárdenas LA, Muhlia-Melo A, Cruz-Escalona V, Galván-Magaña F. 2002. Trophic dynamics and seasonal energetics of striped marlin Tetrapturus audax in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. Fish Res. 57(3):287-295. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(01)00350-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(01)00350-2

Bakun A. 1973. Coastal upwelling indices, west coast of North America. US Department of Commerce. NOAA Tech Rep. Seattle (WA): NMFS SSRF-671. 112 p.

Bakun A. 1975. Daily and weekly upwelling indices, west coast of North America, 1967-73. NOAA Tech Rep: NMFS SSRF-693. p. 16.

Bazzino G, Gilly WF, Markaida U, Salinas-Zavala CA, Ramos-Castillejo J. 2010. Horizontal movements, vertical hábitat utilization and diet of the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Pacific Ocean off Baja California Sur, Mexico. Prog Oceanogr. 86(1-2):59-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2010.04.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2010.04.017

Cisneros-Montemayor AM, Cisneros-Mata MA, Harper S, Pauly D. 2013. Extent and implications of IUU catch in Mexico’s marine fisheries. Mar Pol. 39:283-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.003

[CONAPESCA] Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca. 2010. Anuario estadístico de acuacultura y pesca 2008. Mazatlán (Sinaloa, Mexico): Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación. 196 p.

[CONAPESCA] Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca. 2018. Anuario estadístico de acuacultura y pesca 2018. Mazatlán (Sinaloa, Mexico): Secretaría de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural. 293 p.

Deriso RB, Quinn TJ II, Neal PR. 1985. Catch-age analysis with auxiliary information. Can J Fish Aquat Sci. 42:815-824. http://doi.org/10.1139/f85-104 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/f85-104

[DOF] Diario Oficial de la Federación. 1987 Aug 28. Acuerdo que regula el aprovechamiento de las especies marlin, pez vela y pez espada, conocidas comúnmente como picudos, en la zona económica exclusiva del litoral del Océano Pacífico. Mexico: Secretaría de Pesca.

[DOF] Diario Oficial de la Federación. 1994 Mar 16. Aviso por el que se da a conocer el establecimiento de épocas y zonas de veda para la pesca de diferentes especies de la fauna acuática en aguas de jurisdicción federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Mexico: Secretaría de Pesca.

[DOF] Diario Oficial de la Federación. 2007 Jul 24. Ley General de Pesca y Acuacultura Sustentables. Mexico: Secretaría de Gobernación.

[DOF] Diario Oficial de la Federación. 2008 Sep 12. Acuerdo mediante el cual se establece el volumen de captura incidental permitido en operaciones de pesca de tiburón y rayas en aguas de jurisdicción federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos ubicados en el Océano Pacífico. Mexico: Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación.

[DOF] Diario Oficial de la Federación. 2012 Aug 24. Acuerdo por el que se da a conocer la actualización de la Carta Nacional Pesquera. Mexico: Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación.

[DOF] Diario Oficial de la Federación. 2013 Nov 25. Modificación a la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-017-PESC-1994, para regular las actividades de pesca deportivo-recreativa en las aguas de jurisdicción federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, publicada el 9 de mayo de 1995. Mexico: Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación.

Domeier ML. 2006. An analysis of Pacific striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) horizontal movement patterns using pop-up satellite archival tags. Bull Mar Sci. 79(3):811-825.

Domeier ML, Dewar H, Nasby-Lucas N. 2003. Mortality rate of striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) caught with recreational tackle. Mar Freshw Res. 54(4):435-445. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF01270 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/MF01270

González-Armas R, Klett-Traulsen A, Hernández-Herrera A. 2006. Evidence of billfish reproduction in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. Bull Mar Sci. 79(3):705-717.

Haddon M. 2011. Modelling and quantitative methods in fisheries. 2nd ed. New York (NY): Chapman & Hall/CRC. 433 p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781439894170

Hilborn R, Walters CJ. 1992. Quantitative fisheries stock assessment: choice, dynamics and uncertainty. London (UK): Routledge, Chapman & Hall. 570 p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-3598-0

Hinton MG. 2009. Assessment of striped marlin in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2008 and Outlook for the future. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. 10th Stock Assessment Review Meeting, 12-15 May 2009. Doc. SARM-10-08. La Jolla (CA). 18 p.

Hinton MG, Bayliff WH. 2002. Status of striped marlin in the eastern Pacific Ocean in 2001 and outlook for 2002. Stock Assess. Rep. 3. La Jolla (CA): Inter-Amer Trop Tuna Comm. p. 328-364.

Hinton MG, Maunder MN. 2004. Status of striped marlin in the eastern Pacific Ocean in 2002 and outlook for 2003-2004. In: Bayliff WH, SAR, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission Rep 4. La Jolla (CA): Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission p. 287-310.

Hinton MG, Maunder MN. 2009. Status and trends of striped marlin in the northeast Pacific Ocean in 2009. Stock Assess. Rep. 11: Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. p. 163-218.

Howard JK, Ueyanagi S. 1965. Distribution and relative abundance of billfishes (Istiophoridae) of the Pacific Ocean. Stud Trop Oceanogr. 2:1-134.

Klett-Traulsen A, Aguilar-Ibarra A. 2001. Marlin. In: Cisneros-Mata MA, Beléndez-Moreno LF, Zárate-Becerra E, Gaspar-Dillanes MT, López-González LC, Saucedo-Ruiz C, Tovar-Ávila J (eds.), Sustentabilidad y Pesca Responsable en México: Evaluación y Manejo 1999-2000. Mexico City (Mexico): Instituto Nacional de la Pesca. p. 437-466.

Kopf RK, Davie PS, Bromhead D, Pepperell JG. 2011. Age and growth of striped marlin (Kajikia audax) in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. ICES J Mar Sci. 68(9):1884-1895. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr110 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr110

Markaida U, Quiñonez-Velázquez C, Sosa-Nishizaki O. 2004. Age, growth and maturation of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda:Ommastrephidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico. Fish Res. 66(1):31-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(03)00184-X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(03)00184-X

McDowell JR, Graves JE. 2008. Population structure of striped marlin (Kajikia audax) in the Pacific Ocean based on analysis of microsatellite and mitocondrial DNA. Can J Fish Aquat Sci. 65:1307-1320. https://doi.org/10.1139/F08-054 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/F08-054

Methot RD. 1989. Synthetic estimates of historical abundance and mortality for northern anchovy. Am Fish Soc Symp. 6:66-82.

Methot RD. 2009. Stock assessment: operational models in support of fisheries management. In: Beamish RJ, Rothschild BJ (eds.), Future of Fishery Science – Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Symposium of the American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists. Fish & Fisheries Series, vol. 31. Seattle (WA): Springer. p. 137-165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9210-7_9

Ortiz M, Prince ED, Serafy JE, Holts DB, Davy KB, Pepperell JG, Lowry MB, Holdsworth JC. 2003. Global overview of the major constituent-based billfish tagging programs and their results since 1954. Mar Freshwater Res. 54(4):489-507. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF02028 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/MF02028

Punt AE, Hilborn R. 1996. Biomass dynamic models. User’s manual. FAO Computerized Information Series. Fisheries. 10:62.

Quinn TJ-II, Deriso RB. 1999. Quantitative fish dynamics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 542 p.

Robinson CJ, Gómez-Gutiérrez J, Salas de León DA. 2013. Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) landings in the Gulf of California related to remotely sensed SST and concentrations of chloropyll a (1998-2012). Fish Res. 137:97-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2012.09.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2012.09.006

[SEMARNAP] Secretaría de Medio Ambiente Recursos Naturales y Pesca. 1999. Anuario estadístico de pesca 1998. Tlalpan (Mexico City): Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca. 244 p.

Sibert J, Hampton J, Kleiber P, Maunder M. 2006. Biomass, size, and trophic status of top predators in the Pacific Ocean. Science. 314(5806):1773-1776. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1135347

Squire JL. 1987. Pacific billfish angler catch rates for key area stock assessments. Mar Fish Rev. 49(2):15-25.

Squire JL, Suzuki Z. 1990. Migration trends of striped marlin (Tetmpturus audax) in the Pacific Ocean. In: Stroud RH (ed.) Planning the future of billfishes: research and management in the 90s and beyond. Savannah (GA): National Coalition for Marine Conservation, Inc. p. 67-86.

Talbot GB, Wares PG. 1975. Fishery for Pacific billfish off southern California and Mexico, 1903-69. Trans Am Fish Soc. 104(1):1-12. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1975)104<1:FFPBOS>2.0.CO;2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1975)104<1:FFPBOS>2.0.CO;2

Venzon DJ, Moolgavkar SH. 1988. A method for computing profile-likelihood-based confidence intervals. J Royal App Statistic Soc. 37(1):87-94. https://doi.org/10.2307/2347496 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2347496

Most read articles by the same author(s)