Reproductive aspects of Paranthias colonus (Perciformes: Serranidae) on the Pacific coast of central Mexico

Main Article Content

Gabriela Lucano-Ramírez
Adriana Stephania Santana-Cornejo
Salvador Ruiz RamirezRuiz-Ramírez
Gaspar González-Sansón
Consuelo Aguilar-Betancourt
Alejandro Perez-Toledo


Many species in the family Serranidae are hermaphrodites and of commercial importance. Paranthias colonus belongs to this family, and its reproductive traits are unknown. The present research was carried out with specimens taken from the commercial fishery on the southern coast of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1,541 specimens were processed, with an average length of 30.30 ± 0.10 cm and a length interval of 19.80 to 38.00 cm. Specimen gonads were analyzed macro- and microscopically. The sex ratio was 1.00:0.97 (F:M). According to the maximum monthly values of the gonadosomatic index, gonad maturity stages, and oocyte diameters, P. colonus has 2 broad reproductive periods, from March to June and from November to December. A significant correlation was found between the monthly mean values of the gonadosomatic index and the relative condition factor. Gonads in the mature stage had oocytes in 6 different development phases, with diameters that ranged from 14.30 to 417.40 µm, which means that oocyte development is asynchronous. In the testicle, the development of the germ line is of the unrestricted lobular type. This organ did not present the typical arrangement found in teleost fish, since lobes seem to be delimited by lamellae. The information developed in this study indicates that P. colonus is a gonochoric species. Average length at sexual maturity was 26.80 cm for females and 26.90 cm for males. Average catch lengths indicated that 79.70% of females and 83.30% of males had already reproduced at least once before being caught.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Lucano-Ramírez, G., Santana-Cornejo, A. S., Ruiz RamirezRuiz-Ramírez, S., González-Sansón, G., Aguilar-Betancourt, C., & Perez-Toledo, A. (2022). Reproductive aspects of Paranthias colonus (Perciformes: Serranidae) on the Pacific coast of central Mexico. Ciencias Marinas, 48(1), 1–15.


Albieri RJ, Araújo FG, Ribeiro TP. 2010. Gonadal development and spawning season of white mullet Mugil curema (Mugilidae) in a tropical bay. J Appl Ichthyol. 26(1):105–109. DOI:

Ambriz-Arreola I, Gómez-Gutiérrez J, Franco-Gordo MC, Lavaniegos BE, Godínez-Domínguez E. 2012. Influence of coastal upwelling-downwelling variability on tropical euphausiid abundance and community structure in the inshore Mexican central Pacific. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 451:119–136. DOI:

Barnham C, Baxter A. 1998. Condition factor, K, for salmonid fish. Fisheries Notes:1–3. FN0005

Beverton RJH, Holt SJ. 1957. On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations. London (United Kingdom): Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. (ser. 2; vol. 19).

Brown-Peterson NJ, Wyanski DM, Saborido-Rey F, Macewicz BJ, Lowerre-Barbieri SK. 2011. A standardized terminology for describing reproductive development in fishes. Mar Coast Fish. 3(1):52–70. DOI:

Burton ML, Brennan KJ, Muñoz RC, Parker RO Jr. 2005. Preliminary evidence of increased spawning aggregations of mutton snapper (Lutjanus analis) at Riley’s Hump two years after establishment of the Tortugas South Ecological Reserve. Fish Bull. [accessed 2020 Sep 13]; 103(2):404–410. https://spo.

Caballero-Arango D, Brulé T, Colás-Marrufo T, Tuz-Sulub A, Puerto-Novelo E. 2011. Sexualidad y ciclo sexual de la cuna gata Mycteroperca tigris de los arrecifes coralinos del Banco de Campeche (Sureste del Golfo de México) = Sexuality and Sexual Cycle of the Tiger Grouper Mycteroperca tigris from Coral Reefs of the Campeche Bank (Southeastern of Gulf of Mexico). Proceedings of the 63rd Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute; 1–5 Nov 2010; San Juan Puerto Rico. p. 193–197.

Caballero-Arango D, Brulé T, Montero-Muñoz JL, Colás-Marrufo T. 2008. Análisis preliminar sobre la variación de algunos parámetros reproductivos del mero rojo del Banco de Campeche en el periodo 1989-2004 = Preliminary Analysis on the Variation of Some Reproductive Parameters of Bank of Campeche’s “Red Grouper” in the Period 1989-2004. Proceedings of the 60th Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute; 5–9 Nov 2007; Punta Cana, Dominican Republic. p. 247–253.

Craig MT, Pondella DJ, Hafner JC. 1999. Analysis of age and growth in two eastern Pacific groupers (Serranidae: Epinephelinae). Bull Mar Sci. 65(3):807–814.

Cruz-Romero M, Espino-Barr E, García-Boa A. 1987. Edad y crecimiento en la cabrilla Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns, 1843) en el estado de Colima. Acta Cient Potos. 9:165–176.

De Martini EE, Everson AR, Nichols RS. 2011. Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus quernus, F. Epinephelidae). [accessed 2020 Oct 19]; Fish Bull. 109(1):123–134.

Díaz-Madrid LC, Vega AJ, Robles PYA. 2012. Descripción macro y microscópica de las gónadas de la cherna roja: Epinephelus acanthistius (Serranidae) capturadas en el parque nacional Coiba, Pacífico Panameño. Tecnociencia. 14(2):5–21.

Erisman B. 2008. Reprodutive biology and evolution of Epinephelid and Serranid (Perciformes, Epinephelidae, Serranidae) [dissertation]. [San Diego (CA)]: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California. p. 46–97

Espino-Barr E, Cabral-Solis EG, Garcia-Boa A, Puentes-Gómez M. 2004. Especies marinas con valor comercial de la costa de Jalisco, México. Manzanillo (Mexico): Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Centro Regional de Investigación Pesquera. 145 p.

Espino-Barr E, Cruz-Romero M, Garcia-Boa A. 2003. Peces marinos con valor comercial de la costa de Colima, México. Manzanillo (Mexico): Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Centro Regional de Investigación Pesquera. 106 p.

Estrada-Godínez JA, Maldonado-García M, Gracia-López V, Carrillo M. 2011. Reproductive cycle of the leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea in La Paz Bay, Mexico = Ciclo reproductivo de la cabrilla sardinera Mycteroperca rosacea en la bahía de La Paz, México. Cienc Mar. 37(4):425–441. DOI:

Everson AR, Williams HA, Ito BM. 1989. Maturation and reproduction in two Hawaiian eteline snappers, uku, Aprion virescens, and onaga, Etelis coruscans. Fish Bull. 87:877–888.

Gallardo-Cabello M, Espino-Barr E, Garcia-Boa A, Cabral-Solis EG, Puente-Gomez M. 2007. Study of the growth of the green Jack Caranx caballus (Günther, 1868) in the coast of Colima, México. J Fish Aquat Sci. 2(2):131–139. DOI:

Granados-Lorencio C. 1996. Ecología de Peces. Bogotá (Colombia): Mac Graw Hill. p. 161–200.

Grier HJ. 1993. Comparative organization of the Sertoli cells including the Sertoli cell barrier. In: Russell LD, Griswold MD (eds.), The Sertoli Cell. Clearwater (FL): Cache River Press. p. 703–739.

Grier HJ, Linton JR, Leatherland JF, de Vlaming VL. 1980. Structural evidence for two different testicular types in teleost fishes. Am J Anat. 159(3):331–345. DOI:

Guirao R, Socorro J, Reyes T, Roo J, Fernández-Palacios H, Izquierdo MS. 2005. Estudio del desarrollo gonadal del jurel dentón Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch y Schneider, 1801) en aguas costeras de las islas Canarias = Gonadal development in striped jack Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) in Canary Islands coastal waters. Bol Inst Esp Oceanogr. 21(1– 4):253–264.

Heemstra PC, Randall JE. 1993. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16, Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae): An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper, and lyretail species known to date. Rome (Italy): FAO Fisheries Synopsis.

Htun-Han M. 1978. The reproductive biology of the dab Limanda limanda (L.) in the North Sea: gonosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and condition factor. J Fish Biol. 13(3):369–378. DOI:

Jennings S, Kaiser MJ, Reynolds JD. 2001. Marine Fisheries Ecology. Oxford (United Kingdom): Blackwell. p. 239–257.

Lucano-Ramírez G, Gómez-García MJ, Ruiz-Ramírez S, GonzálezSansón G, Aguilar-Betancourt C, Flores-Ortega JR. 2019a. Reproductive characteristics of the sole Achirus mazatlanus (Pleuronectiformes: Achiridae) in the Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon, Jalisco, Mexico = Aspectos reproductivos del lenguado Achirus mazatlanus (Pleuronectiformes: Achiridae) en la laguna costera de Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, México. Cienc Mar. 45(2):47–58. DOI:

Lucano-Ramírez G, Pérez-Peña E, Ruiz-Ramírez S, Rojo-Vázquez J, González-Sansón G. 2011. Reproducción del pez erizo, Diodon holocanthus (Pisces: Diodontidae) en la plataforma continental del Pacífico central mexicano = Reproduction of the Spiny Puffer, Diodon holocanthus (Pisces: Diodontidae) in the continental shelf of Mexican Central Pacific. Rev Biol Trop. 59(1):217–232. DOI:

Lucano-Ramírez G, Rivera-Ríos EG, Ruiz-Ramírez S, GonzálezSansón G, Pérez-Toledo A. 2016. Reproducción de Carangoides vinctus (Perciformes: Carangidae) en el Pacífico central mexicano = Reproduction of Carangoides vinctus (Perciformes: Carangidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific. Lat Am J Aquat Res. 44(3):610–622. DOI:

Lucano-Ramírez G, Robles-Ravelero M, Ruiz-Ramírez S, González-Sansón G, Aguilar-Betancourt C, Perez-Toledo A. 2019b. Biología reproductiva de Mulloidichthys dentatus (Perciformes: Mullidae) en el Pacífico tropical mexicano. Rev Biol Mar Oceanogr. 54(1):118–128. DOI:

Lucano-Ramírez G, Ruiz-Ramírez S, González-Sansón G, Ceballos-Vázquez BP. 2014. Reproductive biology of the yellow snapper, Lutjanus argentiventris (Pisces, Lutjanidae), from the Mexican central Pacific = Biología Reproductiva del pargo alazán, Lujanus argentiventris (Pisces, Lutjanidae), en el Pacífico central mexicano. Cienc Mar. 40(1):33–44. DOI:

Lucano-Ramírez G, Villagrán-Santa Cruz M, Ruiz-Ramírez S, López-Murillo T. 2001. Histology of the oocytes of Lutjanus peru (Nichols and Murphy, 1922) (Pisces: Lutjanidae) = Histología de los ovocitos de Lutjanus peru (Nichols y Murphy, 1992) (Pisces: Lutjanidae). Cienc Mar. 27(3):335–349. DOI:

Maack G, George MR. 1999. Contributions to the reproductive biology of Encrasicholina punctifer Fowler, 1938 (Engraulidae) from West Sumatra, Indonesia. Fish Res. 44(2):113–120. DOI:

Mendoza-Cruz M, Valles-Vega I, Lozano-Cobo H, Gómez del Prado-Rosas MC, Castro-Moreno PN. 2013. Parasitofauna de Paranthias colonus (Valenciennes, 1846) en el Sargento, Baja California Sur, México. Neotrop Helminthol. [accessed 2021 Jan 03]; 7(1):13–18.

Nagahama Y. 1983. The functional morphology of teleost gonads. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, Donaldson EM (eds.), Fish Physiology. Orlando (FL): Academic Press. (Reproduction; vol. 9). p. 223– 275. DOI:

Nemeth RS, Blondeau J, Herzlieb S, Kadison E. 2007. Spatial and temporal patterns of movement and migration at spawning aggregations of red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, in the U.S. Virgins Islands. Environ Biol Fish. 78:365–381. DOI:

Nikolsky GV. 1963. The Ecology of Fish. New York: Academic Press. 352 p. Posada-López JM. 1996. Life-history, reproductive biology and sexual pattern of the Creole fish, Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes, 1828) (Pisces: Serranidae) [dissertation]. [Mayagüez (Puerto Rico)]: University of Puerto Rico. Ralston S. 1987. Mortality rates of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S (eds.), Tropical snappers and groupers. Biology and Fisheries Management. Boulder: Westview Press. p. 375–404.

Rodríguez-Gutiérrez M. 1992. Técnicas de Evaluación Cuantitativa de la Madurez Gonádica en Peces. Mexico: AGT Editor. 79 p. Rodríguez-Romero J, Cárdenas L, Pérez-Urbiola JC, HinohuyeRivera R, Silva-Hernández MA. 2001. A spinal column malformation in creolefish Paranthias colonus (Osteichthys: Serranidae). Rev Biol Trop. 49(3–4):1267–1268.

Rojo-Vázquez J, Aguilar-Palomino B, Galvan-Piña VH, Godínez-Domínguez E, Hernández-Vazquez S, Ruiz-Ramírez S, Lucano-Ramírez G. 2001. Ictiofauna de la pesquería ribereña en Bahía de Navidad, Jalisco, México, asociada al evento El Niño 1997- 1998. Rev Biol Trop. 49(3–4):915–929.

Ruiz LJ, Figueroa RM, Prieto AA. 1999. Ciclo reproductivo de Lactophrys quadricornis (Pisces: Ostraciidae) de la costa nororiental de Venezuela. Rev Biol Trop. 47(3):561–570. DOI:

Ruiz-Ramírez S, Lucano-Ramírez G, González-Sansón G, RojoVázquez JA, Arellano-Martínez M. 2012. Biología reproductiva de Anisotremus interruptus (Perciformes: Haemulidae) en el Pacífico central mexicano. Rev Biol Trop. 60(2):709–720. DOI:

Ruiz-Ramírez S, Molina Arenas EG, Lucano-Ramírez G, AguilarBetancourt C, Flores-Ortega JR, Kosonoy-Aceves D, GonzálezSansón G. 2017. Aspectos reproductivos de la lisa Mugil curema (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) en la laguna costera de Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, México. Lat Am J Aquat Res. 45(2):443–456. DOI:

Ruiz-Ramírez S, Pérez-Segoviano AM, Lucano-Ramírez G, González-Sansón G, Aguilar-Betancourt C, Flores-Ortega JR. 2018. Reproducción de la cabrilla pinta Epinephelus labriformis en la Bahía de Navidad, Jalisco, México. Rev Biol Mar Oceanogr. 53(3):335–347. DOI:

Sadovy Y, Shapiro DY. 1987. Criteria for the diagnosis of hermaphroditism in fishes. Copeia. 1987(1):136–156. DOI:

Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Liu M. 2008. Functional hermaphroditism in teleosts. Fish Fisher. 9(1):1–43. DOI:

Sala E, Aburto-Oropeza O, Paredes G, Thompson G. 2003. Spawning aggregations and reproductive behavior of reef fishes in the Gulf of California. Bull Mar Sci. 72(1):103–121.

Sley A, Jarboui O, Ghorbel M, Bouain A. 2012. Annual reproductive cycle, spawning periodicity and sexual maturity of blue runner Caranx crysos (Pisces, Carangidae) from the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean). J Appl Ichthyol. 28(5):785–790. DOI:

Smith CL. 1965. The patterns of sexuality and classification of serranid fishes. Am Mus Novit. 2207:1–20.

Starr RM, Sala E, Ballesteros E, Zabala M. 2007. Spatial dynamics of the Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus in a Caribbean atoll. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 343:239–249. DOI:

StatSoft. 2006. Statistica (data analysis software system) v.7.1. [accessed 2019 Nov 22].

Uribe MC, Grier HJ, Mejía-Roa V. 2014. Comparative testicular structure and spermatogenesis in bony fishes. Spermatogenesis. 4(3):e983400. DOI:

West G. 1990. Methods of assessing ovarian development in fishes: A review. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res. 41(2):199–222. DOI:

Yamamoto K, Yamazaki M. 1961. Rhythm of development in the oocyte of the gold-fish, Carassius auratus. Bull Fac Fish. 12(2):93–114.